World’s only PPC (Plant Protein Composite) Bio Ink and 3D Printed Bioscaffold


Materials - Composites
Materials - Bio Materials
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Bioscaffold, with potential to recreate structural and physical environment of a living tissue, are key components in bioprinting applications ranging from wound dressing with controlled release of medicine to tissue engineering/regenerative medicine/drug screening and cancer research.

This technology involves a proprietary, faster, greener and efficient method of reclaiming plant proteins from food processing by-products such as spent grains (e.g. spent corn, spent malt, spent barley); method of purification and development of Pant Protein Composite (PPC) bioink and proprietary 3D EHDJ (Electrohydodynamic Jet) bioprinting methodology for 3D PPC scaffold bioprinting for 3D cell culture applications. 

Expertise in formulation of plant protein with synthetic polymers such as polycaprolactone (PCL) enables development of the world’s only PPC bioink. It can be tuned to desired properties such as viscosity, mechanical strength, biodegradation rate etc for different 3D bioprinters. The PPC bioink has been demonstrated to be printable and is highly conducive for cell growth, due to its natural bioactive properties.

Printing PPC bioink with our proprietary EHDJ scaffold printing methodology enables precise, 3D printing of PPC bioscaffold of multi-layers, large surface area, small, controllable pore size (up to sub-micron scale with porosity of >90%). PPC Bioscaffolds have been demonstrated to enhance cell attachment, proliferation with tunable biodegradation profile that can be monitored in vivo in real time and non-invasively. Furthermore, the PPC bioink possess encapsulation properties to encapsulate bioactives to be released in a controlled manner as the bioscaffold biodegrades – a property ideal for therapeutic applications such as wound dressing.


World’s only:

  • PPC bioink
  • PPC bioscaffold
  • PPC bioink/scaffold with real time, in-vivo biodegardation monitoring capability
  • Customize 3D bioscaffold printing service to print scaffold according to the specifications needed for different biomedical applications.

In summary, 3D printed PPC bioscaffolds with the described PPC bioink and proprietary EHDJ methodology have the following advantages:

  • Customizable scaffold design, diverse structural fabrication in accordance to required specifications for different biomedical applications
  • Tunable biodegradation profile
  • Cytocompatible
  • Batch to batch reproducibility
  • Enhanced cell affinity and proliferation
  • Real time, non-invasive monitoring of biodegradation profile in-vivo
  • Control release of encapsulated bioactive


1. PPC scaffolds for 3D cell culture for development of tissue engineering, regenerative medicine, drug and toxicity testing, cancer disease modelling research and product development.

2. Customization of PPC bioink for different bio-printers

3. Customization of 3D printed bioscaffold in accordance to required specifications for cell culture for the following applications:

  • Therapeutic applications e.g. wound dressing with controlled-release of medicine embedded in the scaffold.
  • Tissue engineering applications
  • Regenerative medicine applications
  • 3D Cell cultures for drug discovery and development
  • Tumor tissue model for cancer research

Market Trends & Opportunities

3D bioprinting is an increasingly popular method of bioscaffold fabrication because of its reproducibility, better control of pore sizes, morphology and matrix porosity compared with conventional fabrication methods. However, poor printability, cell viability, high cost and issues associated with animal protein based bio-inks continues to plague and limit 3D bioprinting applications.

Despite this, 3D Bioprinting has been growing at a phenomenal rate with CAGR of >26% since 2014 and is projected to reach > US$1.8b by 2022. Bioink, a core material for 3D bioprinting is projected to enjoy similar growth trajectory to reach >$800m by 2022.

Reclamation and purification of plant proteins opens up an alternate source of natural proteins to animal derived proteins, without the associated issues of high cost, risk of animal disease transmission and batch to batch variability.

This technology rides on and addresses the following market trends & challenges:

  • Issue of excessive food processing waste such as spent grains with reclamation of plant proteins
  • Intense, heightened demand for plant proteins as functional ingredients and development of plant based meat.
  • Fast growth of 3D bioprinting and 3D cell culture market, both with CAGR of >25%
  • Intense research in 3D cell culture for biomedical and meat culture.


  • Researchers/companies can meet their need of bioscaffolds without large upfront capital investments in 3D bioprinters and expertise in bioprinting.
  • The 3D bioscaffold can be developed with customized bioink composite and 3D bioprinted in accordance to the design, structures needed for different cell types, as defined by the customers.
  • The greater printability and cell supportive function of the PPC bioink enables development of tissue cultures without the need for cells to be embedded into bioink and undergo stress of printing thereby minimizing cell damage/death.
  • PPC bioink/scaffold eliminate issues of cost, risk and batch to batch variability of animal protein based bioink and scaffolds.
  • Ability to monitor biodegradation of implanted scaffolds eliminates the need to sacrifice animals to track biodegradation profile, resulting in significant cost saving.
  • Ability to encapsulate bioactives (e.g. therapeutics and growth factors) has potential to reduce cost by minimizing wastage of biotherapeutics.

Whilst the technology offering enables many customer benefits, the core value proposition for customers is the technology’s ability to customize and deliver a bioscaffold according to defined specifications.

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