Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System (HTEMS) is proposed not only to promote purchase/sale of energy transactions but also to solve the intermittency and variability of renewable energy sources (RESs) when they are integrated as part of the utility grid. A power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) platform is developed to test out the hardware controllers and converter design via the 4-quadrant three-phaser power amplifiers and to enhance the research capabilities for the smart grid technologies.
A low-cost transformer-less flexible power quality conditioner (FPQC) is invented to solve the power quality (PQ) problems of power systems due to the increasing usage of power converters. A series of multiport converters are developed to facilitate the integration of RESs into the power grid with the least number of components and acceptable cost.
Based on an effectiveness studies conducted on the aggregated battery energy storage system (BESS) for frequency regulation, a 5-15% BESS penetration rate is recommended for the grid with the integration of intermittent RESs. The HTEMS system utilizing load frequency control (LFC) based on the model predictive control (MPC) approach is proposed to ensure that frequency deviations settle down to the steady-state nominal frequency much faster than the proportional-integral (PI)-based LFC.
Additionally, a hierarchical two-layer energy management system is proposed for controlling the aggregated and individual BESS, as well as improving the cost-effectiveness of BESS in the performance-based regulation market. An intelligent decision-support tool is introduced for optimal generation bidding of the generation and load aggregator, and for facilitating the participation of loads in the demand response market.
Features of the various components in the HTEMS system:
1) Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) Platform:
2) Transformer-less FPQC:
3) Multiport Converter:
The proposed technology can be applied in the energy industry: