This technique is based on multistable shells which are developed by nanotechnology, surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT). The shape transitions of the bistable or multistable shells in the structure bring about volume changes to adjust buoyant forces in the water and enables the submerging and surfacing without weight changes of the structure. Functional devices can be attached to the submerging and surfacing system to achieve specific functions, such as underwater environment profile monitoring, hydro location, etc. This technique is originally designed for water environment monitoring applied in inshore coastal waters, especially for coral reefs.
In contrast to conventional approaches, such as using cable wired devices, autonomous underwater vehicles, divers, etc., this wireless system is cheap and simple, which can achieve submerging and surfacing movements automatically. The operative parameters can be setup on water surface remotely or nearby. Data collected underwater can be transited when the device is on water surface.
It is believed that this technique is suitable for underwater devices to provide underwater mobility, especially vertical movement under water less than 20 meters.