Although there is over 90% probability of making the right diagnosis with a variety of approaches and tools, it may be difficult to identify the exact cause because it is a diagnosis of exclusion. Despite intense interest in finding serologic AD biomarkers, their development has been confounded by limited sensitivity and poor correlation to brain pathology. In particular, little correlation has been established between plasma amyloid β (Aβ) analysis with brain Aβ plaque deposition, the earliest pathological hallmark of AD. Therefore, there is a need for a definitive, non-invasive and sensitive diagnostic test.
Recent studies have identified that exosomes may play a significant role in AD pathogenesis and progression. Capturing this exchange of exosome-bound information could thus present a transformative, blood-based opportunity to molecularly characterize AD.
The technology, termed amplified plasmonic exosome (APEX), leverages on size-matching plasmonic nanostructures and in situ enzymatic conversion of localized optical product to enable highly sensitive, multiplexed population analysis. The platform not only demonstrated superior sensitivity (~ 200 exosomes-bound circulating amyloid) but also enabled diverse target measurements (proteins and miRNAs).
Any exosome-associated diseases such as cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, prion diseases and kidney-related diseases.
The global Alzheimer’s disease (AD) diagnostic market is expected to grow at a compound annual growth rate of 10% and reach USD 12 billion by the end of 2022. There is currently no single diagnostic test that can determine definitively whether a person has Alzheimer’s disease.