The up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and up-flow fixed film (UFF) in a single bioreactor is used as an integrated bioreactor in the form of UASB-FF bioreactor to produce biohydrogen from palm oil mill effluent (POME). The lab scale UASB-FF bioreactor (total volume 3.5 L, working volume 2.55 L, and liquid height 80 cm) with an external settling tank was successfully designed, fabricated and operated for liquid height 80 cm) with an external settling tank was successfully designed, fabricated and operated for biological H2 production from POME. The use of UASB-FF reactor was a good strategy to accelerate anaerobic granulation and to achieve a high COD removal efficiency as well as H2 yield (0.310 L H2/g COD) in a short period of time. The reactor was efficient in the fermentation of pre-settled POME at high OLR and short HRT. The packing material causes the flocculated biomass to precipate over the sludge blanket to serve as suitable and natural hydrophobic core for the development of granular sludge.
Several studies on biohydrogen production from POME have been accomplished using different reactors. The up flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor due to its ability to keep high microorganism concentration within and high rate of waste stabilization in the reactor, is an alternative bioreactor to generate biological hydrogen. The long start-up period, high and very low up-flow velocities, and biomass washout at hydraulic stresses are the major problems associated with UASB reactors. Therefore, the UASB process modification is needed to eliminate the existing problems as well as having high-performance hydrogen production from POME. A combination of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) and up-flow fixed film (UFF) in a single reactor was invented as modified up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket-fixed film (UASB-FF) bioreactor to produce biohydrogen from POME. The fixed film (FF) packed at the top section make this bioreactor overwhelmed the recognized shortages of UASB and helps to retain a high concentration of biomass and prevents sludge washout in the reactor. The use of UASB-FF reactor was a good strategy to accelerate anaerobic granulation and to achieve a high COD removal efficiency as well as H2 yield in a short period of time.
The technology can be used for both waste treatment and generation of hydrogen for other uses. This technology has High Chemical Oxygen Demands (COD) Removal, increase Production of Hydrogen with low amount of substrate in short period, economical and effective treatment option for POME, renewable resource for energy and materials, cost Saving and contribute to environment protection