Currently, most of the reported meat sauce fermentation processes are based on the natural fermentation of koji under high salt conditions, which is prepared by culturing a mold (such as Aspergillus oryzae) on a mixture of cooked soybeans and wheat flour, and the fermentation duration ranges from 3 months to 12 months. To prevent the growth of spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms, high concentrations of salt (10 % -25 %) must be added to the fermenting mixture, which increases the risks of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases to consumers. Meanwhile, some previous studies compared the assessment of enzymatic hydrolysis for the valorization of different types of meat by-products, such as pork, beef, chicken and salmon viscera. However, none of these results reported hydrolysis of close to 50 %, and the optimized hydrolysis condition was not applied to animal meat. And very few reports on the further process of this hydrolysate produced. The aim of this invention is first to investigate the production of pork trimmings hydrolysate using selected proteases (1), then to explore the feasibility of transforming pork trimmings hydrolysates into a novel meat sauce by yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation (2) without added salt, as well as post-fermentation thermal treatment.
This invention overcomes the limitations of existing meat/soy sauce fermentation technologies - long fermenting duration, using halophiles and high salt concentration, by inducing the fermentation with ester producing wine yeasts and/or probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB). This method explores the feasibility of transforming pork trimmings hydrolysates into a novel meat sauce using protease hydrolysis and non-halophilic yeast, and/or LAB fermentation without added salt within a much shorter timeframe (days vs. traditional months), as well as post-fermentation thermal treatment.
This invention can be applied to various industrial non-seafood meat by-product, such as pork, poultry, beef, mutton to produce value-added, healthy and shorter processed time required food seasonings/flavorings.
1. This invention helps to add values to the industrial meat by-product, and it can be applied not only on pork by-product but also other non-seafood meat types such as poultry, beef, mutton.
2. This invention improves the meat sauce fermentation process by shortening the fermentation time, reducing salt and enhancing the product flavor. Enzymatic hydrolysis requires little preparation of pork trimmings, and the productivity of hydrolysis is consistent, which requires mild condition and efficient, natural, labour-friendly.
3. Non-halophilic yeasts/lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentation is the bio-approach to improve the flavor profile of the meat hydrolysate. Yeast/LAB fermentation requires minimal chemicals, reaction time, and generates little side-products to the final products with a good flavor profile, which meets the environmental-friendly concept.
4. Use of non-seafood meat by-products, no/low salt during hydrolysis and fermentation. Food waste reduction, zero waste, healthy, enables fast fermentation and control of salt addition levels after fermentation.