Several cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers have been recognized and established for AD diagnosis with a high diagnostic accuracy of over 85%. However, the collection of CSF is invasive and causes discomfort and side effects to the patients. On the other hand, the collection of blood, urine and saliva is relatively simple and non-invasive. This detection assay is an immunocomplex based approach with magnetic nanoprobe for sensitive detection of the target biomarkers. Once the target biomarker is captured, a sandwich immunocomposite will be formed. The immunocomposite will then be labelled by our tailor-made fluorophore which gives amplified fluorescence signal for quantification. Thedetection assay is hundred times more sensitive than commercially available ELISA kit. The limit of detection (LoD) is down to femto (10E-15) molar regime (0.104 pg/mL), which is much lower than the serum cut-off for Aβ1-42, tau and p-tau: 530 pg/mL (117.4 pM), 350 pg/mL (7.6 pM), and 80 pg/mL (1.7 pM) respectively. In addition, this assay has a wide dynamic range that allows the quantification of biomarkers in a minute amount (a few microliter) of samples. It is proven practically useful for different body fluids. It is a rapid and low-cost alternative for accurate diagnosis of AD.
The technology provides a accurate, rapid, cost-effective, simple and direct mean for an early detection and diagnostics for neurodegenerative diseases. Without invasive collection of biological sample, the sensitive quanitification of our technology allow us to measure the subtle changes in the expression profile of disease associated biomarkers and achieving an accurate diagnosis for different kinds of disease.
The technology can provide an accurate and high-throughput detection of Alzheimer’s Disease with its unique biomarkers. More importantly, it provides a non-invasive point-of-care diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease. With the extra-high sensitivity in our technology, the potential applications also include to generate probes for other diseases and a new means of quantifying protein in biological specimens.